hey hi hello

i'm just a senior trying to survive my ap tests and writing out notes is really helpful.

* ap biology index
* ap psychology index

☆ sorry everyone, i won't be updating anymore!! i hope you can make use of the information already here, but... there isn't going to be anything new. after finishing all my AP tests in 2012, i can't really bring myself to put any more work into this thing.

☆ never fear, though!! as exam season draws closer, there will be a definite increase in panicked students creating study blogs trying not to forget anything, so you won't be alone!
just check the tumblr tags for your respective exams.

☆ do your best!!

answered questions

erik erikson’s theory of psychological development
  1. trust v. mistrust
    - birth to age 1
    - crucial role played by mother: inconsistency/rejection leads to mistrust; warmth/acceptance results in trust and the “inner certainty” that the world is reliable and predictable 
    - if we learn to mistrust adults in infancy, we can later change when we meet adults who encourage trust. likewise, sense of trust can be lost.

    ex: an orphaned child who keeps jumping from foster home to foster home will likely develop feelings of mistrust and avoid becoming emotionally involved with other people. however, that very same orphan might become more trustful if they meet a teacher who cares for them and is consistently there for them.  

  2. autonomy v. doubt
    - ages 1 to 3
    - children develop new physical and mental skills, and are proud of their accomplishments and insist on doing everything themselves
    - parents who accept the child’s need to control his/her body/impulses/immediate environment foster a sense of autonomy and help the child prepare for independence later in life
    - parents who insist on being overly controlling/critical foster a sense of doubt/lack of confidence 

  3. initiative v. guilt
    - ages 3 to 6
    - child can initiate play activities instead of just follow other children
    - children play pretend, imaging themselves in a number of adult roles
    - begin asking many questions - intellectual initiative 
    - parents who encourage this will enhance the child’s sense of initiative ; parents who make the child feel like these activities are bad or wrong will instill in the child a sense of guilt about self-initiated activities - will later be detrimental in life

  4. industry v. inferiority
    - ages 6-12
    - children begin school and are exposed to formal/impersonal rules
    - demonstrate industry: build model planes, build tree houses, complete school projects
    - if adults praise the child’s creative projects, sense of industry will be reinforced
    - if adults scold the child for making a mess or if the child gets low grades for their projects, they can instill a lasting sense of inferiority

  5. identity v. role confusion
    - adolescence
    -  physical maturation and capability for abstract thought
    - no longer children, but not yet adults, children struggle to create for themselves a meaningful sense of identity 
    - culture plays a large role in influencing selection of identity

  6. intimacy v. isolation
    - early adulthood
    -  young adults search for a partner to care about and share their lives with
    - those who feel threatened by an intimate relationship will avoid intimacy for fear of being ‘swallowed up.’
    - a person unable to maintain a meaningful relationship with others can become lonely/isolated 

  7. generativity v. self-absorption
    - middle adulthood
    - family and work become important social settings
    - generativity: concern in establishing and guiding the next generation
     * if this fails, individual can stagnate and become absorbed with material possessions and personal problems (mid-life crisis) 

  8. integrity v. despair
    - late adulthood
    - coming to terms with dying
    - evaluation/reflection time
    - if a person feels their life has been successful, they will feel a sense of self-acceptance Erikson calls ‘integrity.’
    - if a person feels their life was just a whole sequence of missed opportunities and might-have-beens, they will probably give into despair.  
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    We learned about Erickson in class and had gone through all the stages that are talked about in this post. There is one...
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    I just had a test on this! Wow